radicalisation, Uncategorized

Mapping Radicalisation

The deadly attacks in Madrid (2004), London (2005), Glasgow (2007) and Stockholm (2010), followed by the foiled attempts and arrests in Copenhagen (2010) and Berlin (2011) have contributed to move back the issue of violent extremism and “radicalisation” up on the European political agenda. Furthermore, political concerns about youth radicalisation gained momentum with the publication of alarmist intelligence reports and the multiplication of news reports about European citizens flocking to Syria to fight, mostly alongside the Syrian opposition.

To understand better the radicalisation proces, bellow you may find a glossary of  terms.

COUNTER-RADICALISATION
Usually refers to activity aimed at a group of people intended to dissuade them from engaging in terrorism-related activity.

DE-RADICALISATION
usually refers to activity aimed at a person who supports terrorism and in some cases has engaged in terrorist related activity, which is intended to effect cognitive and/or behavioural change leading to a new outlook on terrorism and/or disengagement from it.

DISENGAGEMENT
In the context of this website, disengagement is the process whereby an individual ceases to be involved in terrorism.

EXTREMISM
Is vocal or active opposition to fundamental Human rights values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs. We also include in our definition of extremism calls for the death of members of our armed forces, whether in this country or overseas.

FAR RIGHT
Groups or individuals who plan or commit serious criminal activity motivated by a political or ideological viewpoint which includes all or some of the following; extreme nationalism, racialism, fascism, Neo-Nazism and anti-Semitism.

IDEOLOGY
Is a set of beliefs. An ideologue is a proponent as well as an adherent of an ideology.

INSURGENT
An insurgent is an individual who fights against a government or an occupying force with the aim of overthrowing it.

INTERVENTIONS
Are projects intended to divert people who are being drawn into terrorist activity. Interventions can include mentoring, counselling, theological support, encouraging civic engagement, developing support networks (family and peer structures) or providing mainstream services (education, employment, health, finance or housing).

ISLAMISM
Is a philosophy which, in the broadest sense, promotes the application of Islamic values to modern government. There are no commonly agreed definitions of ‘Islamism’ and ‘Islamist’, and groups or individuals described as Islamist often have very different aims and views about how those aims might be realised. Some militant Islamists would endorse violence or terrorism to achieve their aims. Many Islamists do not.

PREVENTION
In the context of this website, prevention means reducing or eliminating the risk of individuals becoming involved in terrorism. Prevent involves the identification and referral of those susceptible to violent extremism into appropriate interventions. These interventions aim to divert the susceptible from embarking down the path to radicalisation.

RADICALISATION
This term refers to the process by which a person comes to support terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism.

RADICALISER
A radicaliser is an individual who encourages others to develop or adopt beliefs and views supportive of terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism.

RADICALISING MATERIALS
This includes literature or videos that are used by radicalisers to encourage or reinforce individuals to adopt a violent ideology. Some of this material may explicitly encourage violence. Other materials may take no avowed position on violence but make claims to which violence is subsequently presented as the only solution.

RESILIENCE
In the context of this website, resilience means the capability of people, groups and communities to rebut and reject proponents of terrorism and the ideology they promote.

SAFEGUARDING
Is the process of protecting vulnerable people, whether from crime, other forms of abuse or (in the context of this website) from being drawn into terrorism-related activity.

SINGLE NARRATIVE
The term ‘single narrative’ is sometimes used to refer to the particular interpretation of religion, history and politics that is associated with Al Qa’ida and like-minded groups. The narrative connects ‘grievances’ at a local and/or global level, reinforces the portrayal of Muslims as victims of Western injustice and thereby purports to legitimise terrorism. It combines fact, fiction, emotion and religion and manipulates discontent about local and international issues. The single narrative is also sometimes known as the Al Qa’ida Narrative, the Grand Narrative or the Global Extremist Narrative.

TERRORISM
Terrorism is an action that endangers or causes serious violence to a person/people; causes serious damage to property; or seriously interferes or disrupts an electronic system. The use or threat must be designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public and is made for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause.

VULNERABILITY
Describes the condition of being capable of being injured, difficult to defend, open to moral or ideological attack. Within Prevent, the word describes factors and characteristics associated with being susceptible to radicalisation.

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